The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct.
Unlike other domestic species which were primarily selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors. In 2016, a study found that there were only 11 fixed genes that showed variation between wolves and dogs. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response (i.e. selection for tameness) and emotional processing.
The CanFam3.1 assembly was submitted by Dog Genome Sequencing Consortium on November 2011. The assembly is on chromosome level, consisting of 27,106 contigs assembled into 3,310 scaffolds. From these sequences, 39 chromosomes have been built. The N50 size is the length such that 50% of the assembled genome lies in blocks of the N50 size or longer. The N50 length for the contigs is 267,478 while the scaffold N50 is 45,876,610.
The gene annotation process was carried out using a combination of protein-to-genome alignments, annotation mapping from a suitable reference species and RNA-seq alignments (where RNA-seq data with appropriate meta data were publicly available). For each candidate gene region, a selection process was applied to choose the most appropriate set of transcripts based on evolutionary distance, experimental evidence for the source data and quality of the alignments.Small ncRNAs were obtained using a combination of BLAST and Infernal/RNAfold. Pseudogenes were calculated by looking at genes with a large percentage of non-biological introns (introns of <10bp), where the gene was covered in repeats, or where the gene was single exon and evidence of a functional multi-exon paralog was found elsewhere in the genome. lincRNAs were generated via RNA-seq data where no evidence of protein homology or protein domains could be found in the transcript.
In accordance with the Fort Lauderdale Agreement, please check the publication status of the genome/assembly before publishing any genome-wide analyses using these data.
General information about this species can be found in Wikipedia.
|Assembly||CanFam3.1, INSDC Assembly GCA_000002285.2, Sep 2011|
|Golden Path Length||2,410,976,875|
|Annotation method||Full genebuild|
|Genebuild started||Nov 2011|
|Genebuild released||Jul 2012|
|Genebuild last updated/patched||Jun 2019|
|Non coding genes||10,081|
|Small non coding genes||2,976|
|Long non coding genes||7,083|
|Misc non coding genes||22|
|Genscan gene predictions||46,687|